# Analog Circuits and Biological Systems Group

## Professor Rahul Sarpeshkar

Publications: Chronological Order

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**Selected Publications**

- R. Sarpeshkar, “Analog Synthetic Biology,”
*Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A*, 372: 20130110, 2014. - R. Daniel, J. R. Rubens, R. Sarpeshkar, and T. K. Lu, “Synthetic Analog Computation in Living Cells,”
*NATURE*, Vol. 497:7451, pp. 619-623, 2013; doi:10.1038/nature12148 - S. S. Woo and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Spiking-Neuron Collective Analog Adder with Scalable Precision,”
*Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)*, pp. 1620-1623, Beijing, China, May 2013. - Benjamin I. Rapoport, Jakub T. Kedzierski, Rahul Sarpeshkar, “A Glucose Fuel Cell for Implantable Brain-Machine Interfaces,” PLoS ONE, Vol. 7, No. 6, e384386, 2012.
- R. Sarpeshkar, “Ultra Low Power Bio-medical and Bio-inspired Systems,” in
*Frontiers of Engineering: Reports on Leading-Edge Engineering from the 2011 Symposium*, pp. 137-144, National Academy of Engineering, National Academies Press, 2012. - R. Sarpeshkar, “Universal Principles for Ultra Low Power and Energy Efficient Design,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-II*, Special Issue on Ultra-Low-Power Electronics, Vol. 59, No. 4, pp. 193-198, 2012. - S.K. Arfin and R. Sarpeshkar, “An Energy-Efficient, Adiabatic Electrode Stimulator with Inductive Energy Recycling and Feedback Current Regulation,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-14, 2012. - R. Sarpeshkar, “Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics: Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications, and Bio-inspired Systems,”
*Cambridge University Press*, Kindle Edition, 2011. - R. Danial, S. S. Woo, L. Turicchia, and R. Sarpeshkar, “Analog Transistor Models of Bacterial Genetic Circuits,”
*Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Biological Circuits and Systems (BioCAS) Conference*, pp. 333-336, San Diego, CA, November 2011. - K. H. Wee, L. Turicchia and R. Sarpeshkar, “An Articulatory Silicon Vocal Tract for Speech and Hearing Prostheses,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 339-346, 2011. doi:10.1109/TBCAS.2011.2159858 - W. Wattanapanitch and R. Sarpeshkar, “A low-power 32-channel digitally-programmable neural recording system,,”
*IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 592-602, 2011. - B. Do Valle, C. Wentz, and R. Sarpeshkar, “An Area and Power-Efficient Analog Li-Ion Battery Charger Circuit,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 131-137, 2011. - S. Mandal, R. Sarpeshkar, “A Bio-Inspired Cochlear Heterodyning Architecture for an RF Fovea,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers,*Vol. 58, No. 7, pp. 1647 – 1660, 2011. - R. Sarpeshkar, “Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics: Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications, and Bio-inspired Systems,”
*Cambridge University Press*, February 2010. - R. Sarpeshkar, “Cytomorphic Electronics: Cell-inspired Electronics for Systems and Synthetic Biology,”
*Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics: Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications, and Bio-inspired Systems*, Chapter 24, pp. 753-786, Cambridge University Press, February 2010. - R. Sarpeshkar, “Energy Harvesting and the Future of Energy,”
*Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics: Fundamentals, Biomedical Applications, and Bio-inspired Systems*, Chapter 26, pp. 822-858, Cambridge University Press, February 2010. - L. Turicchia, B. Do Valle, J. Bohorquez, W. Sanchez, V. Misra, L. Fay, M. Tavakoli, and R. Sarpeshkar, “Ultra Low Power Electronics for Cardiac Monitoring,” Invited Paper,
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I*. Vol. 57, No. 9, pp. 2279-2290, 2010. - S. Mandal, L. Turicchia, and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Low-Power Battery-Free Tag for Body Sensor Networks,”
*IEEE Pervasive Computing*, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 71-77, January-March 2010. - M. Tavakoli, L. Turicchia, and R. Sarpeshkar, “An Ultra-Low-Power Pulse Oximeter Implemented with an Energy-Efficient Transimpedance Amplifier,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 27-38, Feb. 2010. - K. H. Wee, L. Turicchia, and R. Sarpeshkar “Biologically inspired silicon vocal tract,” Invited Paper,
*SPIE Newsroom*, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 3 Feb. 2010. doi: 10.1117/2.1201001.1807 - S. Mandal and R. Sarpeshkar, “Circuit Models of Stochastic Genetic Networks,”
*2009 IEEE Symposium on Biological Circuits and Systems (BioCAS)*, Beijing, China, pp. 109-112, November 2009. - S. Mandal, S. Zhak, and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Bio-Inspired Active Radio-Frequency Silicon Cochlea,”
*IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 1814-1828, June 2009. - S. K. Arfin, M. A. Long, M. S. Fee, and R. Sarpeshkar, “Wireless Neural Stimulation in Freely Behaving Small Animals,”
*Journal of Neurophysiology*, Vol. 102, No. 1, pp. 598-605, July 2009. [supplementary material] - S. Mandal and R. Sarpeshkar, “Log-Domain Circuit Models of Chemical Reactions,”
*Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)*, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2009, pp. 2697-2700. - L. Turicchia, S. Mandal, M. Tavakoli, L. Fay, V. Misra, J. Bohorquez, W. Sanchez, and R. Sarpeshkar, “Ultra-low-power Electronics for Non-invasive Medical Monitoring,” Invited Paper,
*Proceedings of the IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC 2009)*, pp. 85-92, San Jose, California, USA, September 13-16, 2009. - L. Fay, V. Misra, and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Micropower Electrocardiogram Amplifier,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 312-320, October 2009. - B.I. Rapoport, W. Wattanapanitch, H.L. Penagos, S. Musallam, R.A. Andersen, R. Sarpeshkar, “A Biomimetic Adaptive Algorithm and Low-Power Architecture for Implantable Neural Decoders,”
*Proceedings of the 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC 2009 Minneapolis)*, 4214-4217 (2-6 September 2009). - S. Mandal, L. Turicchia, R. Sarpeshkar, “A Battery-Free Tag for Wireless Monitoring of Heart Sounds,”
*Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2009)*, pp. 201-206, Berkeley, CA, USA, June 2009. - Sarpeshkar, R. “Neuromorphic and biomorphic engineering systems.”
*McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology 2009*. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009. pp. 250-252. - S. Mandal, S. K. Arfin, and R. Sarpeshkar, “Sub-uHz MOSFET 1/f noise measurements,”
*Electronics Letters*, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 81-82, January 1 2009. - R. Sarpeshkar, W. Wattanapanitch, S. K. Arfin, B. I. Rapoport, S. Mandal, M. W. Baker, M. S. Fee, S. Musallam, and R. A. Andersen,”Low-Power Circuits for Brain-Machine Interfaces,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 173-183, 2008. - K. H. Wee and R. Sarpeshkar, “An electronically tunable linear or nonlinear MOS resistor,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Vol. 55, No. 9, pp. 2573-2583, October 2008.
- J. Sit and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Cochlear-Implant Processor for Encoding Music and Lowering Stimulation Power,”
*IEEE Pervasive Computing*–special issue on implantable electronics, Vol. 1, No. 7, pp. 40-48, 2008. - S. Mandal and R. Sarpeshkar, “Power-Efficient Impedance-Modulation Wireless Data Links for Biomedical Implants,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol.2, No. 4, pp. 301-315, 2008. - K. H. Wee and L. Turicchia and R. Sarpeshkar, “An Analog Integrated-Circuit Vocal Tract,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol.2, No. 4, pp. 316-327, 2008. - L. Turicchia, M. O’Halloran, D. P. Kumar, and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Low-Power Imager and Compression Algorithms for a Brain-Machine Visual Prosthesis for the Blind,” Invited Paper,
*Proceedings of the SPIE*, Vol. 7035, pp. 703510-1:703510-13, San Diego, 10-14 August 2008. - J. Bohorquez, W. Sanchez, L. Turicchia, and R. Sarpeshkar, “An Integrated-Circuit Switched-Capacitor Model and Implementation of the Heart,” Invited Paper,
*Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies (ISABEL)*, pp. 1-5, Aalborg, Denmark, 25-28 October 2008. - W. Wattanapanitch, M. Fee and R. Sarpeshkar, “An Energy-Efficient Micropower Neural Recording Amplifier,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 136-147, June 2007. - R. Sarpeshkar, W. Wattanapanitch, B. Rapoport, S. K. Arfin, M. W. Baker, S. Mandal, M. Fee, S. Musallam, and R. Andersen, “Low-Power Circuits for Brain-Machine Interfaces,”
*Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2007)*, pp. 2068-2071, May 2007. - J. Sit and R. Sarpeshkar, “A low-power, blocking-capacitor-free, charge-balanced electrode-stimulator chip with less than 6nA DC error for 1mA full-scale stimulation,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 172-183, September 2007. - S. Mandal and R. Sarpeshkar, “Low Power CMOS Rectifier Design for RFID Applications,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I*, Vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 1177-1188, June 2007. - M. W. Baker and R. Sarpeshkar, “Feedback Analysis and Design of RF Power Links for Low-Power Bionic Systems,” invited paper,
*IEEE Transactions of Biomedical Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 28—38, April 2007. - J. Sit, A. M. Simonson, A. J. Oxenham, M. A. Faltys, and R. Sarpeshkar, “A low-power asynchronous interleaved sampling algorithm for cochlear implants that encodes envelope and phase information“,
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering,*Vol. 54, pp. 138-149, 2007. - S. Mandal and R. Sarpeshkar, A Bidirectional Wireless Link for Neural Prostheses that Minimizes Implanted Power Consumption,
*Proceedings of the IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS)*, pp. 45-48, 2007. - A. J. Oxenham, A. M. Simonson, L. Turicchia, and R. Sarpeshkar, “Evaluation of Companding-Based Spectral Enhancement Using Simulated Cochlear-Implant Processing,”
*Journal of the Acoustical Society of America*, Vol. 121, No. 3, pp. 1709-1716, 2007. - B. Raj, L. Turicchia, B. Schmidt-Nielsen, and R. Sarpeshkar, “An FFT-based Companding Front End for Noise-Robust Automatic Speech Recognition,”
*EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing*, special issue on Perceptual Models for Speech, Audio, and Music Processing, Article ID 65420, 13 pages, 2007. - H. Yang and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Bio-inspired Ultra-Energy-Efficient Analog-to-Digital Converter for Biomedical Applications“,
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I*, special issue on Life Sciences and System Applications, Vol. 53, No. 11, pp. 2349-2356, November 2006. - M. Baker and R. Sarpeshkar, “Low-Power Single Loop and Dual-Loop AGCs for Bionic Ears,”
*IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Vol. 41, No. 9, pp 1983—1996, September 2006. - R. Sarpeshkar, “Brain Power: Borrowing from Biology Makes for Low-Power Computing,” IEEE Spectrum, invited paper, Vol. 43, Issue 5, pp. 24-29, May 2006.
- M. O’Halloran and R. Sarpeshkar, “An Analog Storage Cell with 5 electron/sec Leakage,”
*Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)*, Kos, Greece, pp. 557-560, 2006. - B. Kim , S. Mandal, and R. Sarpeshkar, “Power-adaptive Operational Amplifier with Positive-Feedback Self Biasing,”
*Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)*, Kos, Greece, pp. 4883-4886, 2006. - S. Mandal, S. Zhak, and R. Sarpeshkar, “Circuits for an RF Cochlea“,
*Proceedings of the International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)*, Kos, Greece, pp 3610-3613, May 21-24, 2006. - R. Sarpeshkar, “Ultra Low Power Electronics for Medicine“,
*Proceedings of the International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2006)*, 3-5 April 2006, p. 37 - T. Lu, S. Zhak, P. Dallos, and R. Sarpeshkar, “Fast Cochlear Amplification with Slow Outer Hair Cells“,
*Hearing Research*, Vol. 214, Issues 1-2, pp. 45-67, April 2006.

**Before 2006
**

- H. Yang and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Time-Based Energy-Efficient Analog-to-Digital Converter“,
*IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Vol. 40, No. 8, pp. 1590-1601, August 2005. - L. Turicchia and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Bio-Inspired Companding Strategy for Spectral Enhancement,”
*IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing*, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 243-253, March 2005. - R. Sarpeshkar, M. Baker, C. Salthouse, J.J. Sit, L. Turicchia, and S. Zhak, “An Analog Bionic Ear Processor with Zero-Crossing Detection,”
*Proceedings of the IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference (ISSCC)*, San Francisco, CA, Paper 4.2, pp. 78-79, February 6-10, 2005. - R. Sarpeshkar, C. Salthouse, J.J. Sit, M. Baker, S. Zhak, T. Lu, L. Turicchia, and S. Balster, “An Ultra-Low-Power Programmable Analog Bionic Ear Processor,”
*IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering*, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 711-727, April 2005. - S. M. Zhak, S. Mandal, and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Proposal for an RF Cochlea“, invited paper,
*Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, New Delhi, India, 4 pages, December 15-18, 2004.* - J.J. Sit and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Micropower Logarithmic A/D with Offset and Temperature Compensation,”
*IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits*, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 308-319, 2004. - M. O’Halloran and R. Sarpeshkar, “A 10nW 12-bit Accurate Analog Storage Cell with 10aA Leakage,”
*IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits*, Vol. 39, No. 11, pp. 1985-1996 November 2004. - M. Tavakoli and R. Sarpeshkar, “An Offset-Canceling Low-Noise Lock-in Architecture for Capacitive Sensing,”
*IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits,*Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 244-253, 2003. - A. MeVay and R. Sarpeshkar, “Predictive Comparators with Adaptive Control,”
*IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing,*Vol. 50, No. 10 pp. 579-588, 2003. - M. Baker and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Low-Power High-PSRR Current Mode Microphone Preamplifier,”
*IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits*, Vol. 38, No. 10 pp. 1671-1678, 2003. - C. Salthouse and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Practical Micropower Programmable Bandpass Filter for use in Bionic Ears,”
*IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits*, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 63-70, 2003. - S. Zhak, M. Baker, and R. Sarpeshkar, “A Low Power Wide Dynamic Range Envelope Detector,”
*IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits*, vol. 38 (10), pp.1750-1753, 2003. - R. Sarpeshkar and M. O’Halloran, “Scalable Hybrid Computation with Spikes,”
*Neural Computation,*Vol. 14, No. 9, pp. 2003-2024, September 2002. - R. Hahnloser, R. Sarpeshkar, M. Mahowald, R. Douglas, and S. Seung, “Digital Selection and Analogue Amplification Coexist in a cortex-inspired silicon circuit,”
*NATURE*, Cover article, Vol. 405, pp. 947-951, 22 June 2000. - B. Crone , A. Dodabalapur, Y. Y. Lin, R. W. Filas, Z. Bao, A. LaDuca, R. Sarpeshkar, H. E. Katz, and W. Li, “Large Scale Complementary Integrated Circuits Based on Organic Transistors,”
*NATURE*, Vol. 403, pp. 521-523, 3rd February 2000. - R. Sarpeshkar, “Analog Versus Digital: Extrapolating from Electronics to Neurobiology,”
*Neural Computation*, Vol. 10, pp. 1601-1638, 1998. - R. Sarpeshkar, Efficient Precise Computation with Noisy Components: Extrapolating From an Electronic Cochlea to the Brain, Ph.D. Thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 1997.
- R. Sarpeshkar, R.F. Lyon, and C.A. Mead, “A Low-Power Wide-Dynamic-Range Analog VLSI Cochlea,”
*Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing*, Vol. 16, pp. 245-274, 1998. - R. Sarpeshkar, R.F. Lyon, and C.A. Mead, “A Low-Power Wide-Linear-Range Transconductance Amplifier,”
*Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing*, Vol. 13, pp. 123-151, 1997. - R. Sarpeshkar, J. Kramer, G. Indiveri, and C. Koch, “Analog VLSI Architectures for Motion Processing: From Fundamental Limits to System Applications,” Invited Paper,
*Proceedings of the IEEE*, Vol. 84, No. 7, pp. 969-987, 1996. - R. Sarpeshkar , T. Delbruck, and C.A. Mead, “White Noise in MOS Transistors and Resistors,”
*IEEE Circuits and Devices*, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 23-29, 1993. - R. Sarpeshkar, L. Watts, and C.A. Mead, “Refractory Neuron Circuits,”
*Computation and Neural Systems Technical Report, CNS TR-92-08*, California Institute of Technology, 29 pages, 1992.