Our group studies ultracold gases near Absolute Zero temperature. At temperatures a million times colder than interstellar space, and at densities a million times thinner than air, quantum mechanics takes center stage: Atoms behave as waves, they interfere like laser light, and form novel states of matter, such as Bose-Einstein condensates and fermionic superfluids. In ultracold Fermi gases, atoms team up in pairs that can flow without friction. This is directly related to superconductivity in metals, where electron pairs transport current without resistance. In contrast to bulk materials, we can freely tune the interaction between atoms and, for example, explore the crossover from a Bose-Einstein condensate of tightly bound molecules to a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superfluid of long-range fermion pairs. Our goal is to use these gases as model systems for strongly interacting quantum matter, from High-Tc superconductors to Neutron Stars.

News and HighlightS

Oct 31st, 2016: Homogeneous Atomic Fermi Gases


Biswaroop Mukherjee, Zhenjie Yan, Parth B. Patel, Zoran Hadzibabic, Tarik Yefsah, Julian Struck, Martin W. Zwierlein

Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 123401 (2017), arXiv:1610.10100

We report on the creation of homogeneous Fermi gases of ultracold atoms in a uniform potential. In the momentum distribution of a spin-polarized gas, we observe the emergence of the Fermi surface and the saturated occupation of one particle per momentum state. This directly confirms Pauli blocking in momentum space. For the spin-balanced unitary Fermi gas, we observe spatially uniform pair condensates. For thermodynamic measurements, we introduce a hybrid potential that is harmonic in one dimension and uniform in the other two. The spatially resolved compressibility reveals the superfluid transition in a spin-balanced Fermi gas, saturation in a fully polarized Fermi gas, and strong attraction in the polaronic regime of a partially polarized Fermi gas.


Oct 12th, 2016: Martin Zwierlein receives I.I. Rabi Prize of the American Physical Society


Aug 15th, 2016: Two and Three-body Contacts in the Unitary Bose Gas


Richard J. Fletcher, Raphael Lopes, Jay Man, Nir Navon, Robert P. Smith, Martin W. Zwierlein, Zoran Hadzibabic

Science 355, 377-380 (2017), arXiv:1608.04377

In many-body systems governed by pairwise contact interactions, a wide range of observables is linked by a single parameter, the two-body contact, which quantifies two-particle correlations. This profound insight has transformed our understanding of strongly interacting Fermi gases. Here, using Ramsey interferometry, we study coherent evolution of the resonantly interacting Bose gas, and show that it cannot be explained by only pairwise correlations. Our experiments reveal the crucial role of three-body correlations arising from Efimov physics, and provide a direct measurement of the associated three-body contact.


June 14th, 2016: Second-Scale Nuclear Spin Coherence Time of Ultracold NaK Molecules


Jee Woo Park, Zoe Z. Yan, Huanqian Loh, Sebastian A. Will, Martin W. Zwierlein

preprint arXiv:1606.04184

Coherence, the stability of the relative phase between quantum states, lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. Applications such as precision measurement, interferometry, and quantum computation are enabled by physical systems that have quantum states with robust coherence. With the creation of molecular ensembles at sub-μK temperatures, diatomic molecules have become a novel system under full quantum control. Here, we report on the observation of stable coherence between a pair of nuclear spin states of ultracold fermionic NaK molecules in the singlet rovibrational ground state. Employing microwave fields, we perform Ramsey spectroscopy and observe coherence times on the scale of one second. This work opens the door for the exploration of single molecules as a versatile quantum memory. Switchable long-range interactions between dipolar molecules can further enable two-qubit gates, allowing quantum storage and processing in the same physical system. Within the observed coherence time, 104 one- and two-qubit gate operations will be feasible.


June 13th, 2016: Spatial Charge and Spin Correlations in the 2D Fermi-Hubbard Model


Lawrence W. Cheuk, Matthew A. Nichols, Katherine R. Lawrence, Melih Okan, Hao Zhang, Ehsan Khatami, Nandini Trivedi, Thereza Paiva, Marcos Rigol, Martin W. Zwierlein

Science 353, 1260-1264 (2016), arXiv:1606.04089

Strong electron correlations lie at the origin of transformative phenomena such as colossal magneto-resistance and high-temperature superconductivity. Already near room temperature, doped copper oxide materials display remarkable features such as a pseudo-gap and a "strange metal" phase with unusual transport properties. The essence of this physics is believed to be captured by the Fermi-Hubbard model of repulsively interacting, itinerant fermions on a lattice. Here we report on the site-resolved observation of charge and spin correlations in the two-dimensional (2D) Fermi-Hubbard model realized with ultracold atoms. Antiferromagnetic spin correlations are maximal at half-filling and weaken monotonically upon doping. Correlations between singly charged sites are negative at large doping, revealing the Pauli and correlation hole\textemdash a suppressed probability of finding two fermions near each other. However, as the doping is reduced below a critical value, correlations between such local magnetic moments become positive, signaling strong bunching of doublons and holes. Excellent agreement with numerical linked-cluster expansion (NLCE) and determinantal quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) calculations is found. Positive non-local moment correlations directly imply potential energy fluctuations due to doublon-hole pairs, which should play an important role for transport in the Fermi-Hubbard model.




April 1st, 2016: Coherent Microwave Control of Ultracold NaK Molecules


Sebastian A. Will, Jee Woo Park, Zoe Z. Yan, Huanqian Loh, Martin W. Zwierlein

Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 225306 (2016), arXiv:1604.00120

We demonstrate coherent microwave control of rotational and hyperfine states of trapped, ultracold, and chemically stable NaK molecules. Starting with all molecules in the absolute rovibrational and hyperfine ground state, we study rotational transitions in combined magnetic and electric fields and explain the rich hyperfine structure. Following the transfer of the entire molecular ensemble into a single hyperfine level of the first rotationally excited state, J=1, we observe collisional lifetimes of more than 3s, comparable to those in the rovibrational ground state, J=0. Long-lived ensembles and full quantum state control are prerequisites for the use of ultracold molecules in quantum simulation, precision measurements and quantum information processing.


April 1st, 2016: Observation of 2D Fermionic Mott Insulators


Lawrence W. Cheuk, Matthew A. Nichols, Katherine R. Lawrence, Melih Okan, Hao Zhang, Martin W. Zwierlein

Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 235301 (2016); arXiv:1604.00096 (2016)

We report on the site-resolved observation of characteristic states of the two-dimensional repulsive Fermi-Hubbard model, using ultracold 40K atoms in an optical lattice. By varying the tunneling, interaction strength, and external confinement, we realize metallic, Mott-insulating, and band-insulating states. We directly measure the local moment, which quantifies the degree of on-site magnetization, as a function of temperature and chemical potential. Entropies per particle as low as 0.99(6)kB indicate that nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic correlations should be detectable using spin-sensitive imaging.


Jan 27th, 2016: Cascade of Solitonic Excitations in a Superfluid Fermi Gas


Mark J.-H. Ku, Biswaroop Mukherjee, Tarik Yefsah, and Martin W. Zwierlein

Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 045304 (2016), arXiv:1507.01047

We follow the time evolution of a superfluid Fermi gas of resonantly interacting 6Li atoms after a phase imprint. Via tomographic imaging, we observe the formation of a planar dark soliton, its subsequent snaking, and its decay into a vortex ring, which in turn breaks to finally leave behind a single solitonic vortex. In intermediate stages we find evidence for an exotic structure resembling the Φ-soliton, a combination of a vortex ring and a vortex line. Direct imaging of the nodal surface reveals its undulation dynamics and its decay via the puncture of the initial soliton plane. The observed evolution of the nodal surface represents dynamics beyond superfluid hydrodynamics, calling for a microscopic description of unitary fermionic superfluids out of equilibrium.


May 18th, 2015: Ultracold Dipolar Gas of Fermionic NaK Molecules


Illustration: Jose-Luis Olivares/MIT

Jee Woo Park, Sebastian A. Will, and Martin W. Zwierlein

Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 205302 (2015)


Physics Synopsis

MIT News

Coverage in Scientific American, Pro-Physik.de, Huffington Post, Live Science, and others

We report on the creation of an ultracold (500 Nanokelvin) dipolar gas of fermionic NaK molecules in their absolute rovibrational and hyperfine ground state. The molecular gas is formed from a mixture of ultracold gases of sodium and potassium atoms, which are first associated into a very loosely bound (Feshbach) molecule. These highly vibrationally excited molecules are then coherently transferred into the absolute rovibrational ground state. The two-photon process bridges an energy gap worth 7500 Kelvin, without the injection of heat. The nearly quantum degenerate molecular gas displays a lifetime longer than 2.5 seconds, highlighting NaK's stability against two-body chemical reactions. A homogeneous electric field is applied to induce a dipole moment of up to 0.8 Debye. With these advances, the exploration of many-body physics with strongly dipolar Fermi gases of NaK molecules is within experimental reach.


May 7th, 2015: Two-Photon Pathway to Ultracold Ground State Molecules


Jee Woo Park, Sebastian A. Will, and Martin W. Zwierlein

New J. Phys. 17, 075016 (2015)


Focus on New Frontiers of Cold Molecules Research


In the quest for the creation of a Fermi gas of chemically stable, ultracold molecules, we were able to show that NaK is a highly promising candidate, featuring chemical stability, broad Feshbach resonances at easily accessible magnetic fields, a strong permanent electric dipole moment of 2.7 Debye.

However, to convert predominantly triplet Feshbach molecules into the singlet rovibrational ground state via a two-photon process requires an intermediate state of mixed singlet-triplet character. Spin-orbit coupling in NaK is weak, and efficient two-photon coupling therefore requires an accidental degeneracy between singlet and triplet excited states. We have identified two such possible "bridges" for two-photon transfer of NaK, and demonstrated coherent two-photon coupling between the Feshbach and the absolute rovibrational ground state. The binding energy of NaK is measured to be 5212.0447(1) cm-1, a thousand-fold improvement in accuracy compared to previous determinations.



March 9th, 2015: A Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms


Lawrence W. Cheuk, Matthew A. Nichols, Melih Okan, Thomas Gersdorf, Vinay V. Ramasesh, Waseem S. Bakr, Thomas Lompe, Martin W. Zwierlein

Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 193001 (2015)

Selected as one of the Physics Breakthroughs in 2015 by IOP's Physics World

Physics Synopsis

MIT News

Coverage in Physics World, Optics & Photonics, Tech Times,

Laser Focus World, and others

We realize a quantum-gas microscope for fermionic atoms trapped in an optical lattice, which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single-atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high-resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single-lattice-site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell’s demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site-resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time-resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement.


February 27, 2014: Motion of a Solitonic Vortex in the BEC-BCS Crossover


Mark J.H. Ku, Wenjie Ji, Biswaroop Mukherjee, Elmer Guardado-Sanchez, Lawrence W. Cheuk, Tarik Yefsah, Martin W. Zwierlein

Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 065301

preprint arXiv:1402.7052

Physics Viewpoint "Solitons with a Twist" by Frederic Chevy

We observe a long-lived solitary wave in a superfluid Fermi gas of Li atoms after phase-imprinting. Tomographic imaging reveals the excitation to be a solitonic vortex, oriented transverse to the long axis of the cigar-shaped atom cloud. The precessional motion of the vortex is directly observed, and its period is measured as a function of the chemical potential in the BEC-BCS crossover. The long period and the correspondingly large ratio of the inertial to the bare mass of the vortex are in good agreement with estimates based on superfluid hydrodynamics that we derive here using the known equation of state in the BEC-BCS crossover.


October 30th, 2013: Ultracold atoms featured in NOVA Program "Making Stuff Colder"

NOVA "Making Stuff Colder"

On this PBS edition of the program NOVA, Making Stuff Colder, Martin Zwierlein explains to host David Pogue how to make the coldest stuff in the universe (starting at 45:20 in the video).

Video credits: Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)

September 12th, 2013: Lawrence Cheuk wins Martin Deutsch Award

Congratulations to Lawrence for winning the Martin Deutsch Award for Excellence in Experimental Physics from the MIT Department of Physics!

Martin Deutsch Award

September 1st, 2013: Waseem Bakr starts faculty position at Princeton University

Congratulations to Waseem on starting his new research group at Princeton!


July 25, 2013: "Heavy Solitons in a Fermionic Superfluid" appears in Nature

Link to Paper

News&Views by Christoph Becker: Dark and Heavy, Nature 499, 413-414 (2013)



July 1, 2013: Martin Zwierlein promoted to Full Professor


April 11, 2013: Jennifer Schloss receives Hertz fellowship, Matthew Nichols NDSEG fellow

Congratulations to Jenny for receiving a Hertz fellowship, and to Matt for receiving an NDSEG fellowship, as well as to Vinay (now off to Berkeley) for receiving an NSF Fellowship.

Hertz Foundation Homepage

NDSEG Homepage

February 19, 2013: Heavy Solitons in a Fermionic Superfluid


Tarik Yefsah, Ariel T. Sommer, Mark J.H. Ku, Lawrence W. Cheuk, Wenjie Ji, Waseem S. Bakr, and Martin W. Zwierlein

Nature 499, 426-430 (2013), arXiv:1302.4736 (2013)

Topological excitations are found throughout nature, in proteins and DNA, as dislocations in crystals, as vortices and solitons in superfluids and superconductors, and generally in the wake of symmetry-breaking phase transitions. In fermionic systems, topological defects may provide bound states for fermions that often play a crucial role for the system's transport properties. Famous examples are Andreev bound states inside vortex cores, fractionally charged solitons in relativistic quantum field theory, and the spinless charged solitons responsible for the high conductivity of polymers. However, the free motion of topological defects in electronic systems is hindered by pinning at impurities. Here we create long-lived solitons in a strongly interacting fermionic superfluid by imprinting a phase step into the superfluid wavefunction, and directly observe their oscillatory motion in the trapped superfluid. Our work paves the way towards the experimental study and control of Andreev bound states in ultracold atomic gases.

February 9, 2013: New Scientist article: "The quantum Sims"


Work in our group is featured in the NewScientist article by Michael Brooks,

"The quantum Sims - Matter's deepest mysteries recreated"

NewScientist, February 9, 2013


January 25, 2013: Ariel Sommer Thesis Defense

Congratulations to Ariel for defending his Ph.D. thesis on "Strongly Interacting Fermi Gases:
Non-Equilibrium Dynamics and Dimensional Crossover" with a brilliant talk

January 24, 2013: Cheng-Hsun Wu Thesis Defense

Congratulations to Cheng for a fantastic Ph.D. thesis on "Strongly Interacting Quantum Mixtures of
Ultracold Atoms" and a great presentation! Cheers!

January 16, 2013: Waseem Bakr wins MIT's 2013 Infinite Kilometer (K) award

Congratulations to Waseem on winning MIT's School of Science's 2013 Infinite Kilometer (K) award!

November 12, 2012: Collective Modes in a Unitary Fermi Gas


Meng Khoon Tey, Leonid A. Sidorenkov, Edmundo R. Sánchez Guajardo, Rudolf Grimm, Mark J. H. Ku, Martin W. Zwierlein, Yan-Hua Hou, Lev Pitaevskii, Sandro Stringari

Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 055303 (2013)

In this joint theoretical and experimental work with Rudi Grimm's experimental group at the University of Innsbruck and the theoretical group of Sandro Stringari and Lev Pitaevskii at the University of Trento we investigate first sound in a strongly interacting Fermi gas.

The frequency of higher-order collective oscillations of first sound nature is strongly dependent on temperature and thus provides a stringent test of our previously measured equation of state. The experimental results from Innsbruck agree with high accuracy with the predictions of theory based on our experimental equation of state measurements and provide the first observation of the temperature dependence of collective frequencies near the superfluid phase transition.


September 6, 2012: Martin Zwierlein receives William W. Buechner Teaching Prize

August 27, 2012: APS Viewpoint: Spin-Orbit Coupling Comes in From the Cold


Our work on spin-orbit coupling was covered as an

APS Viewpoint in Physics 5, 96 (2012):

Spin-Orbit Coupling Comes in From the Cold

by Erich J. Mueller

MIT News also wrote an article about this experiment:

A One-Way Street for Spinning Atoms

Article in IOP Physics World


July 1, 2012: Martin Zwierlein promoted to Associate Professor with tenure

June 21, 2012: Ultracold Fermionic Feshbach Molecules of 23Na40K


Cheng-Hsun Wu, Jee Woo Park, Peyman Ahmadi, Sebastian Will, Martin W. Zwierlein,

Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 085301 (2012)

We report on the formation of ultracold fermionic Feshbach molecules of 23Na40K, the first fermionic molecule that is chemically stable in its ground state. The lifetime of the nearly degenerate molecular gas exceeds 100 ms in the vicinity of the Feshbach resonance. The measured dependence of the molecular binding energy on the magnetic field demonstrates the open-channel character of the molecules over a wide field range and implies significant singlet admixture. This will enable efficient transfer into the singlet vibrational ground state, resulting in a stable molecular Fermi gas with strong dipolar interactions.

June 6, 2012: Dr. Waseem Bakr wins the APS DAMOP Thesis Prize 2012

Congratulations to Waseem for receiving the APS DAMOP Thesis Prize 2012 for his doctoral thesis "Microscopic Studies of Quantum Phase Transitions in Optical Lattices" with Prof. Markus Greiner

June 5, 2012: Vinay Ramasesh wins Malcolm Cotton Brown Award from MIT physics

Congratulations to Vinay for receiving the Malcolm Cotton Brown Award "presented to a senior of high academic standing who plans to pursue graduate study in experimental physics".

May 15, 2012: Spin-Injection Spectroscopy of a Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermi Gas


Lawrence W. Cheuk, Ariel T. Sommer, Zoran Hadzibabic, Tarik Yefsah, Waseem S. Bakr, Martin W. Zwierlein,

Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095302 (2012),

The coupling of the spin of electrons to their motional state lies at the heart of recently discovered topological phases of matter. Here we create and detect spin-orbit coupling in an atomic Fermi gas, a highly controllable form of quantum degenerate matter. We reveal the spin-orbit gap via spin-injection spectroscopy, which characterizes the energy-momentum dispersion and spin composition of the quantum states. For energies within the spin-orbit gap, the system acts as a spin diode. To fully inhibit transport, we open an additional spin gap, thereby creating a spin-orbit coupled lattice whose spinful band structure we probe. In the presence of s-wave interactions, such systems should display induced p-wave pairing, topological superfluidity, and Majorana edge states.

See Physics Viewpoint by Erich Mueller, Physics 5, 96 (2012)

MIT News

March 6, 2012: Mark Ku wins Harvey Fellowship

Congratulations to Mark for winning a Harvey Fellowship!

January 12, 2012: Revealing the Superfluid Lambda Transition in a Unitary Fermi Gas


Mark J. H. Ku, Ariel T. Sommer, Lawrence W. Cheuk, Martin W. Zwierlein,
Science 335, 563 (2012), published online on Science Express Jan 12th, 2012, 10.1126/science.1214987, arXiv:1110.3309

Science Perspective by Wilhelm Zwerger

We have observed the superfluid phase transition in a strongly interacting Fermi gas via high-precision measurements of the local compressibility, density and pressure down to near-zero entropy. Our data completely determine the universal thermodynamics of strongly interacting fermions without any fit or external thermometer. The onset of superfluidity is observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. In particular, the heat capacity displays a characteristic lambda-like feature at the critical temperature of Tc/TF = 0.167(13). This is the first clear thermodynamic signature of the superfluid transition in a spin-balanced atomic Fermi gas. Our measurements provide a benchmark for many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions, relevant for problems ranging from high-temperature superconductivity to the equation of state of neutron stars.


December 7, 2011: Mark Ku wins DARPA OLE best paper award

Congratulations to Mark for winning the DARPA Optical Lattice Emulator (OLE) program best paper award for "Revealing the Superfluid Lambda Transition in the Universal Thermodynamics of a Unitary Fermi Gas"!

October 20, 2011: Bose-Fermi mixture of Na-K with widely tunable interactions


Jee Woo Park, Cheng-Hsun Wu, Ibon Santiago, Tobias G. Tiecke, Peyman Ahmadi, Martin W. Zwierlein,

Phys. Rev. A 85, 051602(R) (2012), arXiv:1110.4552

We have created a quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of 23Na and 40K with widely tunable interactions via broad interspecies Feshbach resonances. Twenty Feshbach resonances between 23Na and 40K were identified. The large and negative triplet background scattering length between the two speices causes a sharp enhancement of the fermion density in the presence of a Bose condensate. As explained via the asymptotic bound-state model (ABM), this strong background scattering leads to a series of wide Feshbach resonances observed at low magnetic fields. Our work opens up the prospect to create chemically stable, fermionic ground state molecules of 23Na-40K where strong, long-range dipolar interactions will set the dominant energy scale.



October 17, 2011: Feynman diagrams versus Feynman quantum emulator


K. Van Houcke, F. Werner, E. Kozik, N. Prokofev,
B. Svistunov, M. Ku, A. Sommer, L. W. Cheuk, A. Schirotzek, M. W. Zwierlein,

Nature Physics 10.1038/nphys2273

published online March 18 2012, arXiv:1110.3747 (2011)

Precise understanding of strongly interacting fermions, from electrons in modern materials to nuclear matter, presents a major goal in modern physics. However, the theoretical description of interacting Fermi systems is usually plagued by the intricate quantum statistics at play. Here we present a cross-validation between a new theoretical approach, Bold Diagrammatic Monte Carlo (BDMC), and precision experiments on ultra-cold atoms. Specifically, we compute and measure with unprecedented accuracy the normal-state equation of state of the unitary gas, a prototypical example of a strongly correlated fermionic system. Excellent agreement demonstrates that a series of Feynman diagrams can be controllably resummed in a non-perturbative regime using BDMC. This opens the door to the solution of some of the most challenging problems across many areas of physics.


October 13, 2011: Evolution of Fermion Pairing from Three to Two Dimensions


Ariel T. Sommer, Lawrence W. Cheuk, Mark Jen-Hao Ku, Waseem S. Bakr, Martin W. Zwierlein,

Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 045302 (2012), arXiv:1110.3058

Viewpoint in Physics 5, 10 (2012) by Mohit Randeria

We follow the evolution of fermion pairing in the dimensional crossover from 3D to 2D as a strongly interacting Fermi gas of 6Li atoms becomes confined to a stack of two-dimensional layers formed by a one-dimensional optical lattice. Decreasing the dimensionality leads to the opening of a gap in radiofrequency spectra, even on the BCS-side of a Feshbach resonance. With increasing lattice depth, the measured binding energy EB of fermion pairs increases in surprising agreement with mean-field theory for the BEC-BCS crossover in two dimensions.


September 8, 2011: Ariel Sommer wins MIT's Martin Deutsch Prize

Congratulations to Ariel for winning MIT's Deutsch Prize for Excellence in Experimental Physics!


March 23, 2011: Strongly Interacting Isotopic Bose-Fermi Mixture Immersed in a Fermi Sea


Cheng-Hsun Wu, Ibon Santiago, Jee Woo Park, Peyman Ahmadi, Martin W. Zwierlein,
PRA 84, 011601(R) (2011), arXiv:1103.4630

We have created a triply quantum degenerate mixture of bosonic 41K and two fermionic species, 40K and 6Li. The boson is shown to be an efficient coolant for the two fermions, spurring hopes for the observation of fermionic superfluids with imbalanced masses. We observe multiple heteronuclear Feshbach resonances, in particular a wide s-wave resonance for the combination 41K-40K, opening up studies of strongly interacting isotopic Bose-Fermi mixtures. For large imbalance, we enter the polaronic regime of dressed impurities immersed in a bosonic or fermionic bath.


March 11, 2011: Spin Transport in Polaronic and Superfluid Fermi Gases


Ariel Sommer, Mark Ku, and Martin W. Zwierlein,
Journal of Physics 13, 055009 (2011)

IOP Select

Focus on Strongly Correlated Quantum Fluids: From Ultracold Quantum Gases to QCD Plasmas

Preprint: arXiv:1103.2337 (2011)

We present measurements of spin transport in ultracold gases of fermionic Lithium-6 in a mixture of two spin states at a Feshbach resonance. In particular, we study the spin-dipole mode, where the two spin components are displaced from each other against a harmonic restoring force. We prepare a highly imbalanced, or polaronic, spin mixture with a spin-dipole excitation and we observe strong, unitarity-limited damping of the spin-dipole mode. In gases with small spin imbalance, below the Pauli limit for superfluidity, we observe strongly damped spin flow even in the presence of a superfluid core. This indicates strong mutual friction between superfluid and polarized normal spins, possibly involving Andreev reflection at the superfluid–normal interface.


January 4, 2011: Universal Spin Transport in a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas


Ariel Sommer, Mark Ku, Giacomo Roati, and Martin W. Zwierlein, Nature 472, 201-204 (2011)

Preprint: arXiv:1101.0780 (2011)

Strongly interacting Fermi gases are ubiquitous in nature, be it electrons in high-temperature superconductors, nuclear matter or quarks. In our recent Nature letter we study transport in gases of fermionic atoms that interact as strongly as quantum mechanics allows. We show that interactions are strong enough to reverse spin currents (shown in the figure to the left), and that the speed of diffusion is set by a fundamental quantum limit given by constants of nature. These results have implications for other fields of physics where transport of fermions plays a major role, such as spintronics and the study of the Early Universe.

Read also:

Nature News&Views by John Thomas

Physics Today

New Scientist

MIT News


November 5, 2010: Zwierlein recipient of Presidential Early Career Award (PECASE)


On Friday, Nov. 5, President Barack Obama named Martin Zwierlein, Assistant Professor of Physics, and six other researchers from MIT as recipients of the Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on science and engineering professionals in the early stages of their independent research careers.

MIT News White House Press Release Picture


October 28, 2010: A localized magnetic impurity in a fermionic superfluid


Eric Vernier, David Pekker, Martin W. Zwierlein, Eugene Demler

Preprint arXiv:1010.6085 (2010)

We consider a localized impurity atom that interacts with a cloud of fermions in the paired state. We develop an effective scattering length description of the interaction between an impurity and a fermionic atom using their vacuum scattering length. Treating the pairing of fermions at the mean-field level, we show that the impurity atom acts like a magnetic impurity in the condensed matter context, and leads to the formation of a pair of Shiba bound states inside the superconducting gap. In addition, the impurity atom can lead to the formation of deeply bound states below the Fermi sea.


October 15, 2010: Zwierlein wins Packard Fellowship


MIT physicist Martin Zwierlein has won a 2010 David and Lucille Packard Fellowship. Zwierlein, an assistant professor of physics, is one of 17 recipients of this year’s awards, which are among nation's largest nongovernmental fellowship prizes.

MIT News David and Lucile Packard Foundation Press Release


August 7, 2010: Zwierlein wins DARPA Young Faculty Award


The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has named Martin Zwierlein, an MIT assistant professor of physics, as one of 33 winners nationally of its annual Young Faculty Award (YFA) competition.

MIT News   DARPA Press Release


June 17, 2010: Zwierlein recipient of 2010 Jonathan Allen Junior Faculty Award

MIT News

June 4, 2010: Sara Campbell wins MIT Orloff award & NSF Graduate Fellowship

Congratulations to Sara for winning the Department of Physics' Joel Matthew Orloff Award for Service to the Community and an NSF graduate fellowship.

May 13, 2010: Competition between pairing and ferromagnetic instabilities


David Pekker, Mehrtash Babadi, Rajdeep Sensarma, Nikolaj Zinner, Lode Pollet, Martin W. Zwierlein, Eugene Demler

Preprint arXiv:1005.2366 (2010)

We study the quench dynamics of a two-component ultracold Fermi gas from the weak into the strong interaction regime, where the short time dynamics are governed by the exponential growth rate of unstable collective modes. We obtain an effective interaction that takes into account both Pauli blocking and the energy dependence of the scattering amplitude near a Feshbach resonance. Using this interaction we analyze the competing instabilities towards Stoner ferromagnetism and pairing.


April 5, 2010: Zwierlein named ONR Young Investigator


The Navy's Office of Naval Research (ONR) has named Martin Zwierlein as one of its 17 new Young Investigators. Zwierlein’s work under the program will be on "Strongly Interacting Fermi Gases in Two Dimensions."

MIT News   ONR Press Release


January 28th, 2010: Zwierlein selected for AFOSR Young Investigators Research Program


Martin Zwierlein has been selected for an AFOSR Young Investigators Research Program (YIP) award to conduct basic research on “Quantum Engineering of Strongly Correlated Matter with Ultracold Fermi Gases”.


January 22, 2010: André Schirotzek Thesis Defense

André defended his thesis - with vast success, of course. Congratulations!


October 13, 2009: Bose-Einstein Condensation of 41-K in Fermi I


The first degenerate gas in our new multi-species apparatus "Fermi I" has seen the (laser-)light of day: A Bose-Einstein Condensate of 41-K atoms. The apparatus allows to cool all potassium species, lithium and sodium.


September 10, 2009: André Schirotzek wins MIT's Martin Deutsch Prize

Congratulations to André for winning MIT's Deutsch Prize for Excellence in Experimental Physics!

June 8, 2009: Observation of Fermi Polarons


We have observed Fermi Polarons, dressed spin down impurities swimming in a Fermi sea of spin up atoms. These polarons constitute the quasiparticles in the Fermi liquid of strongly interacting, imbalanced Fermi mixtures. Remarkably, despite resonant interactions between the bare particles, the interactions between polarons are found to be weak. Read more in our PRL-article and in the Viewpoint Commentary by F. Chevy in Physics.



Review on Ultracold Fermi Gases:
Wolfgang Ketterle and Martin W. Zwierlein

Making, probing and understanding ultracold Fermi gases

in Ultracold Fermi Gases, Proceedings of the International School of Physics  “Enrico Fermi”, Course CLXIV,

eds. M. Inguscio, W. Ketterle, and C. Salomon (Amsterdam, IOS Press, 2008), e-print: arXiv: 0801.2500.





with funds from ARO


The group of Prof. Martin Zwierlein is part of the Center for Ultracold Atoms, the Research Laboratory of Electronics and the Department of Physics, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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