Polina Anikeeva, Aaron S Andalman, Ilana Witten, Melissa Warden, Inbal Goshen, Logan Grosenick, Lisa A Gunaydin, Loren M Frank and Karl Deisseroth
Recently developed method of optogenetics allows for precise optical control of specific neural population in the awake mammalian brain. Over the last several years this powerful method has allowed neuroscientists to deconstruct neural circuits associated with various neurological conditions ranging from Parkinson’s disease to addiction and depression. Until recently there was no robust and easily accessible way to monitor neural circuits during optical stimulation in awake, freely moving mice.
In our recent paper we have designed and validated the optetrode, a device that allows for colocalized multi-electrode electrophysiological recording and optical stimulation in freely moving mice. We found that our simple low-cost design produced stable high-quality recordings and continued to do so for several weeks and sometimes months following implantation. In addition this device allowed us to quantify the response of several types of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex to local optical excitation and inhibition.
While the optetrode is lightweight (2 g) and compact enough to be suitable for electrophysiological recordings in freely moving mice, significant improvements in recording quality as well as reduction in size and weight can be achieved by employing micro- and nano- fabrication methods. I consider optetrode a successful prototype for the neuroprosthetic devices that I intend to design in my newly established group in DMSE and RLE.