John E. Bowers

Institute for Energy Efficiency

University of California Santa Barbara, California, USA

A variety of communication and sensing applications require higher levels of photonic integration and enhanced levels of photonic performance.  Recently, materials advances have enabled significant gains in the performance of lasers, modulators, photodetectors, and photonic integrated circuits on silicon.  One example is heterogeneous integration of III‑V materials and silicon for terabit/s optical interconnects for data communications and copackaged optics.  Another example is high Q resonators on silicon (Q>400 million) resulting in 70 dB noise reduction in DFB self injection locked lasers with integrated laser linewidths of a few hertz.  The use of silicon nitride waveguides allows the extension of silicon photonics from the infrared through visible wavelengths.  Leveraging direct epitaxy, recent progress in InAs quantum dot lasers grown on 300 mm diameter silicon wafers show promise for achieving lower cost and higher performance photonic integrated circuits. The discrete density of states inherent to quantum dot lasers has many benefits: 1) reduced threshold current, 2) higher temperature operation, 3) reduced linewidth enhancement factor resulting in reduced reflection sensitivity and reduced linewidth, and 4) improved reliability.  Prospects and results for integration of quantum dot lasers with photonic integrated circuits will be discussed.  A roadmap for the future of silicon photonic integrated circuits will be presented.