Mindy D. Bishop, Gage Hills, Tathagata Srimani, Christian Lau, Denis Murphy, Samuel Fuller, Jefford Humes, Anthony Ratkovich, Mark Nelson & Max M. Shulaker

DOI: 10.1038/s41928-020‑0419‑7


Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) are a promising nanotechnology for the development of energy-efficient computing. Despite rapid progress, CNFETs have only been fabricated in academic or research laboratories. A critical challenge in transferring this technology to commercial manufacturing facilities is developing a suitable method for depositing nanotubes uniformly over industry-standard large-area substrates. Such a deposition method needs to be manufacturable, compatible with today’s silicon-based technologies, and provide a path to achieving systems with energy efficiency benefits over silicon. Here, we show that a deposition technique in which the substrate is submerged within a nanotube solution can address these challenges and can allow CNFETs to be fabricated within industrial facilities. By elucidating the mechanisms driving nanotube deposition, we develop process modifications to standard solution-based methods that significantly improve throughput, accelerating the deposition process by more than 1,100 times, while simultaneously reducing cost. This allows us to fabricate CNFETs in a commercial silicon manufacturing facility and high-volume semiconductor foundry. We demonstrate uniform and reproducible CNFET fabrication across industry-standard 200 mm wafers, employing the same equipment currently being used to fabricate silicon product wafers.